Management, Leadership and Gorvenance


  1. Definition: Management involves planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling resources (human, financial, and material) to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively.
  2. Functions of Management: The four primary functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (often referred to as the P-O-L-C framework).
  3. Managerial Roles: Managers play various roles, including interpersonal (leader, figurehead), informational (monitor, spokesperson), and decisional (entrepreneur, negotiator) roles.
  4. Levels of Management: Management is typically categorized into three levels: top management (strategic), middle management (tactical), and front-line management (operational).
  5. Management Skills: Effective managers possess a mix of technical skills (job-specific expertise), interpersonal skills (communication, teamwork), and conceptual skills (strategic thinking).
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